Which toxins have a role in the pathogenesis of acute pyelonephritis (kidney infection)?

Updated: Jul 01, 2021
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Toxins, which affect various host cell functions, include the following:

  • Alpha-hemolysin
  • Cytotoxic necrotizing factor–1
  • Cytolethal distending toxin
  • Secreted autotransporter toxin

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