What is complicated pyelonephritis (kidney infection) and how should it be managed?

Updated: Jul 01, 2021
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Complicated pyelonephritis results from structural and functional abnormalities, urologic manipulations, or underlying disease; it includes pyelonephritis in men and in the elderly. Any patient with complicated pyelonephritis should be referred, if possible, to a physician trained in the management of these cases (eg, a nephrologist, urologist, or infectious disease specialist). The patient will require ongoing management, including repeat cultures, metabolic studies, and appropriate imaging studies.

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