What is the role of carbon dioxide angiography in the workup of renal artery stenosis (RAS)?

Updated: Nov 02, 2020
  • Author: Bruce S Spinowitz, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Carbon dioxide angiography is an alternative angiographic contrast agent used in combination with digital subtraction angiography to avoid the risk of conventional nephrotoxic contrast agents in patients with severe renal insufficiency. The images obtained are similar in quality to intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography; however, the technique requires an experienced investigator and a dedicated person to inject the carbon dioxide. Discomfort and inadequate images are potential complications of the procedure.

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