What are the tubular and cytotoxic causes of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Updated: Dec 24, 2020
  • Author: Biruh T Workeneh, MD, PhD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Tubular etiologies may include ischemia or cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic etiologies include the following:

  • Heme pigment - Rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis
  • Crystals - Tumor lysis syndrome, seizures, ethylene glycol poisoning, megadose vitamin C, acyclovir, indinavir, methotrexate
  • Drugs - Aminoglycosides, lithium, amphotericin B, pentamidine, cisplatin, ifosfamide, radiocontrast agents

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