Which disturbances in water or electrolyte balance are clinically evident in stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep Arora, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Signs of alterations in the way the kidneys are handling salt and water in stage 5 include the following:

  • Peripheral edema
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Hypertension

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