What are the target phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep Arora, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Definitive evidence on the benefit of lowering phosphate levels in CKD is lacking, and guideline recommendations vary. KDIGO  guidelines suggest lowering elevated phosphate levels toward the normal range in stages 3a-5d CKD. [78] United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines provide recommendations only for stages 4, 5, and 5d. [80]

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