How does anemia manifest in chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep Arora, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Anemia, which in CKD develops primarily as a result of decreased renal synthesis of erythropoietin, manifests as fatigue, reduced exercise capacity, impaired cognitive and immune function, and reduced quality of life. Anemia is also associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, the new onset of heart failure, the development of more severe heart failure, and increased cardiovascular mortality.

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