Is end-stage renal disease (ESRD) more common in males or females?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep Arora, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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In NHANES, the distribution of estimated GFRs for the stages of CKD was similar in both sexes. In the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) 2011 Annual Data Report, however, the incident rate of ESRD cases at the initiation of hemodialysis in 2009 was higher for males, with 415.1 per million population compared with 256.6 for females. [28]

CKD in children is somewhat more common in boys, because posterior urethral valves, the most common birth defect leading to CKD, occur only in boys. Importantly, many individuals with congenital kidney disease such as dysplasia or hypoplasia do not clinically manifest CKD or ESRD until adulthood.

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