Which markers of kidney damage can establish diagnosis of stage 1 and stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep Arora, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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By itself, measurement of GFR may not be sufficient for identifying stage 1 and stage 2 CKD, because in those patients the GFR may in fact be normal or borderline normal. In such cases, the presence of one or more of the following markers of kidney damage can establish the diagnosis [3] :

  • Albuminuria (albumin excretion > 30 mg/24 hr or albumin:creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g [> 3 mg/mmol])
  • Urine sediment abnormalities
  • Electrolyte and other abnormalities due to tubular disorders
  • Histologic abnormalities
  • Structural abnormalities detected by imaging
  • History of kidney transplantation in such cases

Hypertension is a frequent sign of CKD but should not by itself be considered a marker of it, because elevated blood pressure is also common among people without CKD.

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