What is the morbidity and mortality associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)?

Updated: Apr 15, 2021
  • Author: Kartika Shetty, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Intubation and ventilatory support bypass the normal host defense mechanisms, predisposing patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to infection.

In addition, hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)/VAP that develops in ICU patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, because these patients are already critically ill. Estimated all-cause mortality is between 25-50%. [15]

Compromised cardiac and lung function may further decrease their cardiopulmonary reserve.

Ventilator-associated barotrauma often decreases already compromised lung function. In addition, it may alter chest radiographic appearances.

As mentioned above, early-onset HAP/VAP pneumonia (ie, hospital-onset of CAP) expectedly has a better prognosis than late­ onset nosocomial pneumonia because the latter tends to be associated with multidrug-resistant (MOR) organisms. [16, 17, 18, 19, 20]


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