Which bacteria are common etiological agents of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)?

Updated: Apr 15, 2021
  • Author: Kartika Shetty, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Common bacteria involved in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)  include the following [10] :

  • P aeru ginosa
  • Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S  aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S  aureus (MRSA)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Non-Enterobacteriaceae bacteria such as S. marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and  Acinetobacter species are less common causes. Acinetobacter species commonly colonize respiratory tract secretions in patients in the ICU. HAP caused by  Acinetobacter species or  B cepacia may be associated with outbreaks.  Streptococcus pneumoniae and  Haemophilus influenzae are recovered only in early-onset HAP.

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