What are the possible complications of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Updated: Jun 11, 2020
  • Author: Shadab Hussain Ahmed, MD, AAHIVS, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Complaints are difficult to quantitate because of the geographic distribution of this infection in developing nations and the frequency of comorbid conditions such as viral hepatitis. Hepatosplenic disease with portal hypertension is the most common long-term, serious outcome, followed by cardiopulmonary involvement, obstructive nephropathy, bacteremia, and malignancy. Female genital infection can contribute to pregnancy complications, including reports of related ectopic pregnancy. Urogenital schistosomiasis is considered to be a risk factor for HIV infection, especially in women. [1]

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