What extrapulmonary symptoms of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)?

Updated: Apr 24, 2019
  • Author: Shelley A Gilroy, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Although Pneumocystis infection rarely causes extrapulmonary manifestations, such findings may be present in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis or in patients with advanced HIV infection who are not taking any prophylaxis. They may also occur in the absence of lung involvement.

Based on most well-documented findings, Pneumocystis infection may present in almost any organ system, as follows:

  • Central nervous system

  • Bone marrow (may have necrosis with resultant pancytopenia)

  • Lymphadenopathy

  • Eyes (may have retinal cotton-wool spots)

  • Thyroid (may present as a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass)

  • Gastrointestinal tract

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