What is the mortality rate for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)?

Updated: Apr 24, 2019
  • Author: Shelley A Gilroy, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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In patients with HIV infection, PJP once carried a mortality rate of 20%-40%, depending on disease severity at presentation. Currently, mortality rates of 10%-20% are reported. PJP is still a major cause of death in patients with AIDS in the United States.

In persons without HIV infection, PJP carries a worse prognosis [20] ; this has not changed significantly in the past 20 years. Mortality rates of 30%-50% have been documented in several large studies.

The prognosis of PJP is worse in patients who present with concurrent pulmonary disease, in patients who develop pneumothorax, and in patients who require mechanical ventilation. The higher mortality rate is likely a result of delayed diagnosis and delayed initiation of appropriate treatment.

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