What are risk factors for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)?

Updated: Apr 24, 2019
  • Author: Shelley A Gilroy, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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PJP is caused by infection with P jiroveci. The following groups are at risk for PJP: [11, 12, 13]

  • Persons with HIV infection whose CD4+ cells fall below 200/µL and who are not receiving PJP prophylaxis (In addition, in patients with HIV infection, findings of other opportunistic infections [eg, oral thrush] increases the risk of PJP, regardless of CD4+ count.) [14, 15]

  • Persons with primary immune deficiencies, including some forms of hypogammaglobulinemia (particularly CD40-ligand deficiency, also known as X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

  • Persons receiving long-term immunosuppressive regimens for connective-tissue disorders, vasculitides, or solid-organ transplantation (eg, heart, lung, liver, kidney) [16]

  • Persons with hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies, including solid tumors and lymphomas [17]

  • Persons with severe malnutrition

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