What are the possible complications of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) treatment?

Updated: May 08, 2020
  • Author: Delong Liu, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a common complication of treatment for any high-grade, bulky, treatment-sensitive lymphoma and occurs after intracellular contents are released rapidly into the blood. The syndrome manifests as renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia; these metabolic derangements may lead to sudden death if left uncorrected. Prophylactic and treatment measures include allopurinol, alkaline diuresis, and correction of potassium and phosphate abnormalities.

Patients with bulky or advanced-stage anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) are at high risk for TLS and should receive prophylaxis, with close monitoring of fluid status, urine output, electrolytes, and renal function.

Long-term survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma are at increased risk for second malignancies, including all solid tumors, melanoma, Hodgkin disease, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

Rare serious complications, such as hemophagocytic syndrome, have been reported.

Chemotherapy drugs are myelosuppressive.

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