Which microscopic findings are characteristic of lung transplantation rejection, grade D?

Updated: Jun 06, 2019
  • Author: Aliya N Husain, MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Philip T Cagle, MD  more...
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Chronic vascular rejection (grade D rejection) is characterized by fibrointimal thickening of arteries and veins, with or without inflammatory infiltrates. Chronic vascular rejection is not diagnosed with transbronchial biopsies. Overall, grade D rejection is rare and has not been reported to cause significant allograft dysfunction. It is most often seen in the setting of BO.

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