How are bone marrow biopsy findings characterized in Waldenström macroglobulinemia?

Updated: Feb 01, 2021
  • Author: Karen Seiter, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining results are often positive because of the high polysaccharide content in the cells.

Three patterns of marrow involvement are described, as follows:

  • Lymphoplasmacytoid cells (ie, predominantly lymphoplasmacytic and small lymphocytes) in a nodular pattern
  • Lymphoplasmacytic cells (ie, small lymphocytes, mature plasma cells, mast cells) in an interstitial/nodular pattern
  • A polymorphous infiltrate (ie, small lymphocytes, plasma cells, plasmacytoid cells, immunoblasts with mitotic figures).

The abnormal cells may have PAS-positive intranuclear inclusions called Dutcher bodies (deposits of IgM around the nucleus).

Primary amyloidosis is a rare complication of IgM gammopathies. If this is suspected (because of neuropathy, nephrotic syndrome, or cardiac failure), then abdominal fat-pad needle aspiration, along with bone marrow biopsy, may help to demonstrate amyloid deposits on Congo red staining (ie, apple-green birefringence under polarized light).

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