What is oral fluid HIV-1 testing?

Updated: Sep 19, 2018
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

An FDA-approved EIA known as OraQuick Advanced is available for the testing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 in oral fluid and blood in non-clinical settings (CLIA-waved). In addition, there are the Avioq HIV-1 Microelisa System (CLIA High complexity test) as well as the DPP HIV-1/2 Assay (CLIA-waved). While the DPP HIV-1/2 Assay can also be used to test whole blood, the Avioq HIV-1 Microelisa System can only be used with oral fluid and dried blood spots. [41]

The main concern with the oral fluid test has been clusters of high rates of false-positive results in several US cities, mainly New York City and San Francisco. [42, 43, 44] When whole-blood specimens were used for testing, there was no observed increase in false-positive rates. The CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are aware of these reports and have recommended continued use of rapid HIV testing on oral fluid as long as test subjects are informed of the need for additional testing in case of a positive result.


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