How is provoked vestibulodynia disorder (PVD) treated?

Updated: Dec 04, 2020
  • Author: Eric S Rovner, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
  • Print

Pain on vestibular examination should prompt investigation of the cause of PVD (eg, testosterone deficiency, neurologic factors, pelvic muscle hypertonicity), as this will determine treatment. Testosterone deficiency is treated with cessation of oral contraceptives or, in menopausal women, application of estrogen/testosterone creams. Neuroproliferative PVD is treated with vulvar vestibulectomy. Hypertonicity of the pelvic floor muscles is treated in part with physical therapy. [50]

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!