What is the most promising urinary biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)?

Updated: Dec 04, 2020
  • Author: Eric S Rovner, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Perhaps the most promising urinary biomarker for IC/BPS is antiproliferative factor (APF). [8] This small 8–amino-acid peptide has been associated with suppression of cell growth, increases in transcellular permeability, and lowering of levels of proteins that form intercellular junctional complexes. APF is synthesized and secreted by bladder epithelial cells from patients with IC/BPS and may play a key role in pathophysiology. [9] In vitro studies have shown that removal of APF from cell culture media restored cell proliferation and membrane integrity. [10] Studies have also suggested a role for APF in the therapeutic effect of hydrodistension in patients with IC/BPS, although further confirmatory studies are necessary. [11]

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