What is the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection during pregnancy?

Updated: Jul 26, 2021
  • Author: Madhu Chhanda Choudhary, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 (PACTG 076) clinical trial showed that the administration of zidovudine (AZT, ZDV) to a pregnant woman and her infant could reduce the risk of perinatal transmission by nearly 70%. [3] Subsequent trials and observational studies have shown combination antiretroviral prophylaxis administered to the mother antenatally is associated with reduced perinatal transmission rates of less than 2%. [1, 2] Additional trials have also identified simple regimens that are effective in reducing perinatal transmission in resource-limited countries. From these study results, we can better understand the use of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited and resource-rich countries. [4, 5]

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