What is the risk of exposure to body fluids from an HIV-infected patient?

Updated: Jul 27, 2020
  • Author: Ana Elizabeth Markelz, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Answer

The risk of HIV transmission after exposure to body fluids from an HIV-infected patient is generally low. Risks associated with the 3 main routes of exposure are as follows: [3, 4]

  • Percutaneous exposure - Risk with an HIV-positive source, approximately 0.3%; risk is increased by hollow-bore needles, visibly bloody devices, deep injuries, and source person with terminal illness reflecting higher titer of HIV
  • Cutaneous exposure (ie, via nonintact skin) - Risk with an HIV-positive source, less than 0.09%
  • Mucous membrane exposure - Risk with an HIV-positive source, approximately 0.09%; risk is increased with a high viral load in the source and large-volume exposure

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!