What factors affect the progression of the renal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD)?

Updated: Sep 12, 2019
  • Author: Phuong-Thu Pham, MD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Risk factors associated with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include the following [5] :

  • Hypertension
  • Nephrotic range proteinuria
  • Severe anemia
  • Vasoocclusive crisis
  • Acute chest syndrome
  • Stroke
  • βS-gene haplotype
  • Genetic variants of MYH9 and APOL1 [6]
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Parvovirus B19 infection

Protective factors include the following:

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