How was ECMO developed?

Updated: Dec 21, 2017
  • Author: Edwin Rodriguez-Cruz, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

In May 1953, Gibbon used artificial oxygenation and perfusion support for the first successful open heart operation. [2] In 1954, Lillehei developed the cross-circulation technique by using slightly anesthetized adult volunteers as live cardiopulmonary bypass apparatuses during the repair of certain congenital cardiac disorders. [3] In 1955, at the Mayo Clinic, Kirklin et al improved on Gibbon's device and successfully repaired an atrial septal defect. [4]

In 1965, Rashkind and coworkers were the first to use a bubble oxygenator as support in a neonate dying of respiratory failure. [5] In 1969, Dorson and colleagues reported the use of a membrane oxygenator for cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. [6]

In 1970, Baffes et al reported the successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as support in infants with congenital heart defects who were undergoing cardiac surgery. [7] In 1975, Bartlett et al were the first to successfully use ECMO in neonates with severe respiratory distress. [8]


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