What are the differences in symptoms and physical findings between uncomplicated biliary colic and acute cholecystitis?

Updated: Apr 01, 2019
  • Author: Douglas M Heuman, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Since the gallbladder is not inflamed in uncomplicated biliary colic, the pain is poorly localized and visceral in origin; the patient has an essentially benign abdominal examination without rebound or guarding. Fever is absent.

In acute cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder with resultant peritoneal irritation leads to a well-localized pain in the right upper quadrant, usually with rebound and guarding. Although nonspecific, a positive Murphy sign (inspiratory arrest on deep palpation of the right upper quadrant during deep inspiration) is highly suggestive of cholecystitis. Fever is often present, but it may lag behind other signs or symptoms.

Although voluntary guarding may be present, no peritoneal signs are present. Tachycardia and diaphoresis may be present as a consequence of pain. These should resolve with appropriate pain management.

The presence of fever, persistent tachycardia, hypotension, or jaundice necessitate a search for complications of cholelithiasis, including cholecystitis, cholangitis, pancreatitis, or other systemic causes.

In severe cases of acute cholecystitis, ascending cholangitis, or acute pancreatitis, bowel sounds are often absent or hypoactive.


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