What are initial and chronic complications of gallstones (cholelithiasis)?

Updated: Apr 01, 2019
  • Author: Douglas M Heuman, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

A gallstone in the common bile duct may impact distally in the ampulla of Vater, the point where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct join before opening into the duodenum. Obstruction of bile flow by a stone at this critical point may lead to abdominal pain and jaundice. Stagnant bile above an obstructing bile duct stone often becomes infected, and bacteria can spread rapidly back up the ductal system into the liver to produce a life-threatening infection called ascending cholangitis. Obstruction of the pancreatic duct by a gallstone in the ampulla of Vater can trigger activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes within the pancreas itself, leading to acute pancreatitis. [1, 2]

Chronically, gallstones in the gallbladder may cause progressive fibrosis and loss of function of the gallbladder, a condition known as chronic cholecystitis. Chronic cholecystitis predisposes to gallbladder cancer.


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