Which factors increase the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC)?

Updated: Mar 11, 2019
  • Author: Ronald J Cohen, MB, BCh, PhD, FRCPA, FFPATH; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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Smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the 3 most well-established risk factors associated with development of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Smoking is calculated to play a role in the development of RCC in 10-20% of cases among women and 20-30% of cases among men. Obesity is calculated to contribute to the development of 30% of cases in Europe and up to 40% in the United States and Canada. Relative risks for RCC reported for hypertension range from 1.3-2.0. [2, 3, 4] By contrast, only 1-5% of RCC in contemporary surgical series are associated with recognized hereditary genetic disorders. [7, 12]

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