What is used as secondary prophylaxis against tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection?

Updated: Mar 09, 2021
  • Author: Justin R Hofmann, MD; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD  more...
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For TB, it is important to collect specimens for culture and probes before therapy is started. Initial-phase therapy consists of 2 months of isoniazidrifampin or rifabutinpyrazinamide, and ethambutol daily or 5 to 7 times per week under direct observation (AI recommendation). The continuation phase, after ensuring drug susceptibility and repeat cultures, consists of daily isoniazid and rifampin or rifabutin for 6 months for pulmonary TB, 9 months for pulmonary TB in which cultures remained positive after the initial 2 months of therapy, 9 to 12 months for extrapulmonary TB with CNS involvement, 6 to 9 months for extrapulmonary TB with bone or joint involvement, and 6 months for disease limited to other sites (all BII recommendations).

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