How is the type 2 (T2 high) subtype of asthma?

Updated: Oct 07, 2019
  • Author: John J Oppenheimer, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

In the past decade there have been significant advances in the phenotypic classification of asthma. Asthma can be viewed as a Type 2 (T2 high) subtype, which implicates signaling of IL-4, IL-13, Il-5, IgE and other inflammatory cascade pathways. Proposed biomarkers of T2 asthma include serum IgE, blood and lung eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide, and others.  Allergic asthma is considered a T2-high form of asthma. Less is known about non-T2 asthma, but it is marked by the absence of these biomarkers. Asthma can also be broadly categorized as eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic. Asthmatics with eosinophilic disease may have very high levels of eosinophils in the blood and/or sputum. Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) is also an overlap phenotype seen in patients with clinical features of both asthma and COPD.


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