Who is at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency?

Updated: Dec 15, 2020
  • Author: Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Screening for vitamin D deficiency is recommended only in those individuals who are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency, including the following [2] :

  • Patients with osteoporosis

  • Patients with a malabsorption syndrome

  • Black and Hispanic individuals

  • Obese persons (body mass index >30 kg/m2) [3]

  • Patients with disorders that affect the metabolism of vitamin D and phosphate (eg, chronic kidney disease)

See Workup for more detail.

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