What is the most critical metabolic problem that affects infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)?

Updated: Apr 29, 2020
  • Author: Thomas R Moore, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

The most critical metabolic problem that affects infants of diabetic mothers is hypoglycemia. Unmonitored and uncorrected hypoglycemia can lead to neonatal seizures, brain damage, and death. The strongest predictor of neonatal hypoglycemia is maternal mean blood glucose level during labor. Infants of diabetic mothers also appear to have disorders of both catecholamine and glucagon metabolism and have a diminished capability to mount normal compensatory responses to hypoglycemia.

Thus, current recommendations specify frequent blood glucose checks and early oral feeding when possible (ideally from the breast), with infusion of intravenous glucose if oral measures prove insufficient. Most neonatologists maintain strict monitoring of the glucose levels of newborn infants of diabetic mothers for at least 4-6 hours (frequently 24 h), often necessitating admission to a newborn special care unit.


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