What are the risk factors for macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)?

Updated: Apr 29, 2020
  • Author: Thomas R Moore, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Maternal obesity has a strong and independent effect on fetal macrosomia. Birth weight is largely determined by maternal factors other than hyperglycemia, with the most significant influences being gestational age at delivery, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal height, pregnancy weight gain, the presence of hypertension, and cigarette smoking.

When women who are very obese (weight >300 lb) were compared with women of normal weight, the newborns of obese women had more than double the risk of macrosomia compared to those of women of normal weight. [36] This may explain the failure of glycemic control to completely prevent fetal macrosomia in several series.

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