What is the role of the standard lipid profile in the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Updated: Jul 23, 2021
  • Author: Mary Ellen T Sweeney, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

A standard lipid profile using the Friedewald equation to calculate the LDL cholesterol is not useful if the triglyceride level is more than 400-500 mg/dL. The excess cholesterol present in beta-VLDL is included in the LDL cholesterol value. If the triglycerides are elevated but less than 1000 mg/dL and the total cholesterol is elevated, the lipoprotein abnormality may be caused by either: (1) elevations of both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and VLDL, which is type IIb or mixed hyperlipoproteinemia, or (2) increased remnant VLDL or intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), which is type III hyperlipidemia or dysbetahyperlipoproteinemia (total cholesterol levels, about 300-600 mg/dL; triglyceride levels, about 400-800 mg/dL). The 2 disorders may be distinguished by obtaining a direct LDL cholesterol analysis (enzymatic analysis), which is available at most commercial laboratories. If the direct LDL cholesterol is significantly lower than the calculated LDL cholesterol, a diagnosis of type IIIhyperlipoproteinemia is likely. Furthermore, if the cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio in isolated VLDL is greater than 0.3, dysbetalipoproteinemia is likely (normal ratio, 0.2).


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