Which ophthalmologic abnormalities suggest hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Updated: Jul 23, 2021
  • Author: Mary Ellen T Sweeney, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Corneal arcus, lipemia retinalis, and xanthelasma are the most common ocular abnormalities. [2] Triglyceride levels of 4000 mg/dL or higher may cause lipemia retinalis, in which funduscopic examination reveals retinal blood vessels (and occasionally the retina) that have a pale pink, milky appearance.

The ocular changes are usually not seen until the triglyceride level reaches at least 2000 mg/dL in the early stages; they are best observed in the peripheral fundus. The vessels initially appear salmon-pink, but when the triglyceride level rises further, they become whitish. These changes, which begin in the periphery, progress toward the posterior pole as the triglyceride level rises. In severe cases, the vessels are creamy white, and differentiating the arteries from the veins is difficult. The findings can fluctuate widely from day to day, depending on the triglyceride level.

Xanthelasma is a deposition of lipid in the eyelid, usually the upper medial lid. The lesions may be excised, but recurrences are common. Current treatments include serial excisions, the use of carbon dioxide and erbium lasers, and trichloroacetic acid peels. With primary excisions, recurrences of up to 40% have been reported, and secondary excision recurrences are even higher. [43] Of the initial failures, 20% are within the first year. [44]

The fundus abnormalities, which improve as the triglyceride levels return to normal, provide a method of following the patient's course and response to therapy.


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