What comorbidities are associated with obesity?

Updated: Jun 09, 2021
  • Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

The clinician should also determine whether the patient has had any of the comorbidities related to obesity, including the following [4] :

  • Respiratory: Obstructive sleep apnea, [5] greater predisposition to respiratory infections, increased incidence of bronchial asthma, and Pickwickian syndrome (obesity hypoventilation syndrome [6] )

  • Malignant: Reported association with endometrial (premenopausal), prostate, colon (in men), rectal (in men), breast (postmenopausal), gall bladder, gastric cardial, biliary tract system, pancreatic, ovarian, renal, and possibly lung cancer, as well as with esophageal adenocarcinoma and multiple myeloma [7, 8, 9]

  • Psychological: Social stigmatization and depression

  • Cardiovascular: Coronary artery disease, [10] essential hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, cor pulmonale, obesity-associated cardiomyopathy, accelerated atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension of obesity

  • Central nervous system (CNS): Stroke, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and meralgia paresthetica

  • Obstetric and perinatal: Pregnancy-related hypertension, fetal macrosomia, and pelvic dystocia [11]

  • Surgical: Increased surgical risk and postoperative complications, including wound infection, postoperative pneumonia, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism

  • Pelvic: Stress incontinence

  • Gastrointestinal (GI): Gall bladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fatty liver infiltration, and reflux esophagitis

  • Orthopedic: Osteoarthritis, coxa vera, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, Blount disease and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, and chronic lumbago

  • Metabolic: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia

  • Reproductive (in women): Anovulation, early puberty, infertility, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries

  • Reproductive (in men): Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

  • Cutaneous: Intertrigo (bacterial and/or fungal), acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, and increased risk for cellulitis and carbuncles

  • Extremity: Venous varicosities, lower extremity venous and/or lymphatic edema

  • Miscellaneous: Reduced mobility and difficulty maintaining personal hygiene

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.


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