Which ocular manifestations of HIV infection are most prevalent in developing countries?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Luca Rosignoli, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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Most HIV-infected individuals are in developing countries, particularly, sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. [16, 17, 18] The prevalence of CMV retinitis among HIV-infected persons in these developing countries is lower than in developed countries.

However, ocular complications of toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, and papillomavirus-associated conjunctival squamous cell tumor are more prevalent in HIV-infected persons in developing countries. This increased prevalence may be secondary to increased exposure to causative agents and lack of access to antiretroviral therapy in these countries.

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