What causes the neuro-ophthalmologic complications of HIV infection?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Luca Rosignoli, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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Neuro-ophthalmologic complications are seen in approximately 10-15% of patients who are infected with HIV. The common causes of neuro-ophthalmologic complications include cryptococcal meningitis, meningeal and parenchymal lymphoma, neurosyphilis, and toxoplasmosis. More diffuse encephalopathy may be due to either direct effects of the virus (HIV retinopathy) or to superimposed infection from Polyomavirus causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). [13]

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