Which medications in the drug class Hypoglycemia Antidotes are used in the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Updated: Oct 08, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Hypoglycemia Antidotes

Pancreatic alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce glucagon, a polypeptide hormone. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by promoting hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

Glucagon (GlucaGen, Gvoke)

Glucagon elevates blood glucose levels by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and enhancing the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as proteins and fats (gluconeogenesis). It increases hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose in the liver and accelerates hepatic glycogenolysis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Glucagon also increases the force of contraction in the heart and has a relaxant effect on the gastrointestinal tract. It is available in a reconstitutable powder form. Glucagon is also available as a ready-to-use subcutaneous (SC) solution in prefilled syringes or an autoinjector.

Glucagon intranasal (Baqsimi)

This agent activates hepatic glucagon receptors, which stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis. Hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis are thus accelerated, with blood glucose levels consequently increasing. Glucagon requires preexisting hepatic glycogen stores to effectively treat hypoglycemia. Glucagon intranasal is indicated for severe hypoglycemic reactions in adults and children (aged 4 years or older) with diabetes.

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