Which conditions and factors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Oct 08, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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The following conditions and factors should be taken into account in considering a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM):

  • Type 2 DM

  • Monogenic DM, [95] previously known as maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY), a rare autosomal dominant condition found primarily in whites

  • Secondary hyperglycemia

  • Disorders of target tissues (liver, muscles, adipose tissue)

  • Endocrine disorders - Endocrine tumor causing increased production of growth hormone, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, glucagon, and somatostatin; Addison disease; Graves disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; acanthosis nigricans (genetic disorders with insulin resistance)

  • Drugs - Thiazide diuretics, phenytoin, and glucocorticoids

  • Chronic pancreatitis

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Prader-Willi syndrome - Mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism associated with DM

  • Nondiabetic glycosuria

  • Renal glycosuria - Glucose appears in urine despite normal glucose concentration in blood; this may occur because of an autosomal genetic disorder or dysfunction of the proximal renal tubule (eg, Fanconi syndrome or chronic renal failure), or it may occur during pregnancy as a consequence of the increased glucose load placed on tubules by the elevated glucose filtration rate

  • Peripheral neuropathy from alcohol abuse or vitamin B-12 deficiency

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