What are the risk factors for macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Oct 08, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Macrovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes, causing 65-75% of deaths in this group, compared with approximately 35% of deaths in people without diabetes. Diabetes by itself increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) 2-fold in men and 4-fold in women, and many patients have other risk factors for MI as well.

The HbA1c value per se, rather than self-reported diabetes status or other established risk factors, robustly predicts MI odds. Each 1% increment in HbA1c independently predicts 19% higher odds for MI. [93] The risk of stroke in people with diabetes is double that of nondiabetic people, and the risk of peripheral vascular disease is 4 times that of people without diabetes.

Patients with diabetes may have an increased incidence of silent ischemia. [94] Diastolic dysfunction is common in patients with diabetes and should be considered in patients who have symptoms of congestive heart failure and a normal ejection fraction.

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