Which medications in the drug class Antifungals, Systemic are used in the treatment of Aseptic Meningitis?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Answer

Antifungals, Systemic

These agents are used in the management of infectious diseases caused by fungi.

Amphotericin B deoxycholate (Amphotericin B (conventional), Fungizone)

A polyene antibiotic produced by a strain of S nodosus, this drug can be fungistatic or fungicidal. It binds to sterols, such as ergosterol, in the fungal cell membrane, causing intracellular components to leak with subsequent fungal cell death. The drug is used to treat severe systemic infection and meningitis caused by susceptible fungi (i.e., C albicans, H capsulatum, C neoformans). It is also available in liposomal (AmBisome) and lipid-complex (Abelcet) formulations. Amphotericin B does not penetrate the CSF well. Intrathecal amphotericin may be needed in addition.

Amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet)

This agent is amphotericin B in phospholipid complexed form; it is a polyene antibiotic with poor oral availability. Amphotericin B is produced by a strain of Streptomyces nodosus; it can be fungistatic or fungicidal. The drug binds to sterols (e.g., ergosterol) in the fungal cell membrane, causing leakage of intracellular components and fungal cell death. Toxicity to human cells may occur via this same mechanism.

Flucytosine (Ancobon)

Flucytosine is converted to fluorouracil after penetrating fungal cells and inhibits RNA and protein synthesis. It is active against candidal and cryptococcal species and is used in combination with amphotericin B.

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Fluconazole has fungistatic activity. It is a synthetic PO antifungal (broad-spectrum bistriazole) that selectively inhibits fungal cytochrome P-450 and sterol C-14 alpha-demethylation, which prevents conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, thereby disrupting cellular membranes.


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