Which autoimmune conditions are associated with chronic Addison disease?

Updated: Mar 11, 2020
  • Author: George T Griffing, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Idiopathic autoimmune Addison disease may occur in isolation or in association with other autoimmune phenomena (eg, Schmidt syndrome, polyglandular autoimmune disease types 1 and 2).

  • Celiac disease [22, 23, 24]

  • Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

  • Mucocutaneous candidiasis

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus [16]

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

  • Graves disease

  • Vitiligo

  • Alopecia areata, totalis and universalis

  • Premature ovarian or testicular failure

  • Pernicious anemia

  • Myasthenia gravis

  • Idiopathic hypophysitis

  • Chronic active hepatitis

  • Primary biliary cirrhosis

  • The association of Addison disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis is known as Schmidt syndrome.

  • The association of Addison disease with hypoparathyroidism and mucocutaneous candidiasis is described as polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1. It may have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It has no human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. [25] . It is also termed autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE).

  • The association of Addison disease with type 1 diabetes mellitus and Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves disease is described as polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2 and may be associated with HLA-B8 and DR-3. [26, 27]

  • Other autoimmune phenomena, as outlined above, can occur in either of the 2 polyglandular syndromes.

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