What are the approach considerations for the treatment of CNS lupus?

Updated: May 04, 2021
  • Author: Pradeep C Bollu, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Patients with an acute neurologic presentation generally require an intensive care unit and neuroimaging facilities. Hemodialysis may be needed if acute renal failure occurs. Physician comfort and access to experienced multispecialty consultation are usually more of a problem than medical equipment limitation.

Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should be provided in cooperation with a consulting rheumatologist. Therapeutic intensity correlates with the severity of an acute attack. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other symptomatic agents are used for less threatening symptoms. Corticosteroids are used in low-dose oral, high-dose oral, or high-dose intravenous (IV) regimens according to the severity of potential organ damage. Previous steroid therapy may provoke an adrenocortical deficiency state.

Clinical studies supporting this approach were generally performed in lupus nephritis because of its frequency, severity, and quantifiable improvement or deterioration, but the same treatment approaches are generally applied to other organ systems, including the central and peripheral nervous systems and muscular disease. This overall treatment approach should be familiar to neurologists who are accustomed to the evaluation and treatment of other autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, or polymyositis.

With little evidence base to the therapeutic modalities, a logical approach to the treatment of cerebral lupus is to build a treatment strategy around the various possible pathogeneses: (1) ischemia due to thromboses secondary to the antiphospholipid syndrome, (2) small-vessel noninflammatory proliferative vasculopathy due to cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and (3) antibody-mediated damage to spinal cord and optic nerve—akin to Devic disease. [41]

Seropositive findings for neuromyelitis optica (NMO)–immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody occurring with SS/SLE (Sjogren syndrome/SLE overlap) or non–organ-specific antibodies favors coexisting NMO (Devin syndrome) rather than a vasculitic process. Antibodies against the aquaporin 4 channel is an important evaluation for this common confusing situation. [42]

The standard treatment for the nonthrombotic syndromes associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is immunosuppression, first with corticosteroids and with early recourse to cyclophosphamide. A Cochrane Database Systematic Review found no randomized controlled trials comparing these 2 treatments and concluded there was no evidence of a treatment advantage of cyclophosphamide. [43]

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