What are the characteristics of the midline theta rhythm epileptiform normal variant?

Updated: May 11, 2018
  • Author: Selim R Benbadis, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
  • Print


Midline theta rhythm (ie, Ciganek rhythm) may be observed during wakefulness or drowsiness. The frequency is 4-7 Hz, and the location is midline (ie, vertex). The morphology is rhythmic, smooth, sinusoidal, arciform, spiky, or mu-like.

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!