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Double-pulse study. Using a common single coil, a conditioning stimulus (1) is given over the target hemisphere a short delay prior to a test stimulus (2) over the same location. The conditioning effect is evaluated by comparing conditioned responses to baseline responses that are obtained without a conditioning stimulus. This allows measurement of intracortical inhibition and facilitation.
Interhemispheric conditioning study. A conditioning stimulus (1) is given over the contralateral hemisphere a short delay prior to a test stimulus (2) over the target hemisphere. The conditioning effect is evaluated by comparing conditioned responses to baseline responses that are obtained without a conditioning stimulus. This allows measurement of transcallosal inhibition or excitation.
Example of a motor map obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), using a stereotactic technique. The TMS map is represented in red. It is compared with a map obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in green. The overlap of the TMS and functional MRI maps is represented in yellow. The TMS and functional MRI mapping techniques can provide complementary information on motor control.
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Ceribell, Eisai, Greenwich, Growhealthy, LivaNova, Neuropace, SK biopharmaceuticals, Sunovion<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Eisai, Greenwich, LivaNova, Sunovion<br/>Received research grant from: Cavion, LivaNova, Greenwich, Sunovion, SK biopharmaceuticals, Takeda, UCB.
Norberto Alvarez, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital; Medical Director, Wrentham Developmental Center, Wrentham, MA