What are the risks of in utero infection with chickenpox (varicella) (varicella-zoster virus) (VZV)?

Updated: Aug 31, 2020
  • Author: Anthony J Papadopoulos, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

In utero infection with VZV is a concern. [13, 14] Primary maternal chickenpox during pregnancy may produce latency of VZV in the dorsal root ganglia of the fetus. These children may remain asymptomatic, or they may develop zoster at a young age without a previous history of primary chickenpox infection. Primary maternal chickenpox infection in early to mid-pregnancy is estimated to have a 1-2% risk of causing the congenital varicella syndrome, which is characterized by limb hypoplasia, muscular atrophy, skin scarring, cortical atrophy, microcephaly, cataract formation, and rudimentary digits.

Prepartum infection with onset of chickenpox in the mother 5 or more days previous to delivery allows transplacental passage of sufficient maternal IgG antibody to protect the newborn from severe, disseminated varicella infection.

Peripartum infection of the fetus before sufficient maternal antibody has crossed the placenta to confer transient passive immunity to the fetus (ie, when the mother experiences onset of chickenpox < 5 d before delivery or within 2 d after delivery) often results in severe disseminated varicella in the newborn infant, which has substantial mortality.


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